The majority of New York and London’s air pollution is from outside.

Dr. Caralampo Focas from the Transport Studies Unit of the University of Oxford’s School of Geography and the Environment says that most of the pollution from New York and London comes from the outside. The greenhouse gas emissions from private cars and other forms of transport in London are twice that which each individual emits within the metropolitan area. The peer-reviewed journal Transport Policy published Dr. Focas’ research (citation below). The presence or release of harmful substances in the air is known as “air pollution”. If policymakers set targets for greenhouse gases for only the most polluting regions, but not for those with the highest levels of pollution in that region, then something is very wrong. The difference in New York City is astonishing. Car travel within the outer regions is 4 times more per capita than it is within an urban setting. The study was conducted by Dr. Focas (Senior Visiting Research Associate, Transport Studies Unit), using data from both the US National Household Travel Survey as well the UK National Travel Survey. NY State & SE England transportation structures. Since the 1950s the population outside Greater London’s Green Belt has been increasing’relentlessly. Transport structures in the New York Tri-State and South East of England are strongly built around the private automobile. Dr. Focas stated that measures to reduce CO2 emissions must address the fact that the M 25 motorway is not charged for use. However, central London has congestion charges marked with the letter “C” on the roadway. The metro area of London offers many transport options. These include the underground, a comprehensive bus service, private cars, and taxis. He compared how the travel patterns of both the cities’ peripheral areas are changing. To calculate the travel habits and greenhouse gas emissions per head (per person – each man, woman, and child) within the cities and in the surrounding areas (outside), he analyzed data from household travel surveys. The majority of CO2 emissions come from the outside. Dr. Focas wrote in an abstract for the journal: “In our London and New York areas, the exurban areas are responsible for most of the car-based CO2 emission: 77% to the London region and 87% to the New York area. Future CO2 emissions from private cars are also estimated using population projections and future estimates. We estimate that CO2 emissions reduction targets will not be achieved by large amounts. There are many types of pollution. Possible pollutants include chemicals, sewage leaks and noise. Citation: “Travel behavior and CO2 emissions within urban and suburban London and New York,” Caralampo Focas. Transport Policy, Volume 46, March 2016, Pages 82-91. DOI: 0.1016/j.tranpol.2015.11.003. Video: Sian Berry (Green Party) discusses London’s pollution crisis and the work her party does to monitor it. The whole campaign is meaningless if pollution originates from the areas around it. These areas are almost always monitored.

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