The 5D blackhole would cause general relativity to be broken down and would also mean that we need a new theory in order to understand the Universe. A team of scientists from Queen Mary University of London and the University of Cambridge have conducted simulations on supercomputers. In the peer-reviewed journal Physical Review Letters, theoretical physicists explain that they successfully simulate how general relativity would be destroyed by a ring-shaped dark hole. The simulation showed that Einstein’s theory of general relativity, upon which modern Physics is based, could be destroyed by a black hole with a peculiarly-shaped shape. The researchers stressed that the Universe must have at least five dimensions in order for this strange black hole to exist. See the post at imgur.com. How many dimensions do you have? Scientists believe that the Universe contains many dimensions. However, it is not known how many. Researchers have created a simulation of a black hole that looks like a thin circle. This creates a network of “bulges” connected by strings which, over time, become thinner. These strings eventually become so thin they can pinch off and form a series of ultra-tiny black hole clusters. This is similar to how water drops from a faucet. Since 2002, their ‘discovery’, we have been aware of ring-shaped black hole formations. This is however the first time that their dynamics can be successfully simulated using supercomputers and extremely powerful computers. (a) The apparent horizon for a n=0.4-ring during the most dynamical phases of evolution. (b) The apparent horizon for the n=0.2-ring right before it collapses into a black hole. (c) Kh=0.2 contour to a n=0. 15 rings during evolution. Image: Physical Review Letters. Einstein’s equations are broken down by a naked singularity. If this kind of black hole forms, Einstein’s equations that underlie general relativity would be destroyed. These equations are the basis of our current knowledge about gravity. Everything, from GPS signals used for navigation to how old our Universe stars are, to how old they actually were, all depends on general relativity. The theory of general relativity explains that matter causes spacetime to distort around it. What we call gravity is the result of this warp. General relativity has been successful in all tests since Einstein’s theories were published. One of the limitations of general relativity is its existence singularities. One definition of singularity is a situation in which gravity exerts so much power that time and space are destroyed. Einstein predicted singularities would exist in the middle of black holes, with an even horizon. The event horizon, also known as the “point of no returns”, is where you will find singularities. If you reach that point, gravity is so strong it is impossible for any object to escape, even light. It cannot therefore be seen from outside. Markus Kunesch (a doctoral student in Cambridge’s Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics) co-authored the paper. He stated: “As long singularities remain hidden behind an event horizon they don’t cause trouble and general relativity still holds – The ‘cosmic censorship theory’ states that this is always true. We can predict the future without black holes as long as we accept the cosmic censorship theory.” Einstein’s groundbreaking equation states that space-time curvature equals energy distribution. Image adapted from www.shass.mit.edu. What would happen if there was a singularity outside of the event horizon? Is it possible for a singularity to exist beyond an event horizon. We would see the singularity if it existed. However, it would not be visible to us. This state would make no scientific sense to us. It causes laws of physics and cosmology to fail. These theoretical physicists believe that such an object, also known as the ‘naked singularity,’ could be found in higher dimensions. Saran Tunyasuvunakool (also a DAMTP doctoral student) said that “if naked singularities exist general relativity will break down.” General relativity would be a disaster because it wouldn’t have predictive power and it couldn’t be used as an independent theory to explain everything. Scientists, as well as most people, consider the Universe to exist in four dimensions. These are the three dimensions of everyday life plus the fourth dimension time, which we collectively refer to spacetime. The Universe can have up to 11 dimensions according to some theories of theoretical physics. Other dimensions might appear to be large and vast, but they could also be small and hard to see. Humans can only perceive three dimensions. Extra dimensions cannot be detected by humans without high-energy experiments such as those being performed at Large Hadron Collider. Professor Stephen Hawking is in front of the COSMOS supercomputer located at Cambridge University. This computer is the strongest in Europe and was used by researchers to perform their simulation. (Image by bitcity.it). Studying general relativity higher dimensions Einstein did not mention how many dimensions the Universe could have. Therefore, theoretical physicists are studying general relativity at greater dimensions in order to find out if cosmic censorship is still in place. The scientists speculated that the ring-shaped black hole in five dimensions could be broken up, resulting in a naked singularity. The Cambridge researchers, along with Pau Figueras, Queen Mary University of London’s co-author, discovered that naked singularities can be created if the rings are sufficiently thin. The COSMOS supercomputer was used to run a simulation of Einstein’s entire theory in higher dimensions. This allowed them not only to confirm their findings but also to determine the eventual fate of these “black rings”. Part of the Science and Technology Facilities Council’s (STFC), DiRAC HPC Facility, the University of Cambridge has the COSMOS supercomputer. This is Europe’s largest shared memory computer. A majority of the time, the black ring will collapse back into a circle, leaving the singularity within the event horizon. The super-thinness of black rings may cause bulges that are connected with thinner and thinner string, which can eventually lead to a naked singularity. These extreme forms required new computer codes and simulation techniques. Tunyasuvunakool stated that “the better we simulate Einstein’s theory of gravity, the easier we can help with advancing computational techniques.” However, if the Universe is four-dimensional, it’s widely believed that cosmic censorship theories are true. If that proves false, an alternate explanation (the Universe) will be needed. Quantum gravity
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